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No democracy can adequately function without the support of citizens who understand its foundations in ideas, institutions and practices, and know how to ensure that their problems and aspirations are addressed by the governments charged with representing them. Nor is it enough to change the apparatus of a government; citizens of new democracies must learn to move from being passive subjects of the state to full-fledged citizens of a stable civil society.

CIVITAS, an international consortium for civic education, aims to strengthen effective education for informed and responsible citizenship in new and established democracies around the world. The CIVITAS consortium is composed of individuals, non-governmental associations and governmental institutions from many countries as well as international organizations.

CIVITAS works to maintain a worldwide network, using all available resources, including computer networking, international exchange and various other means, to bring the knowledge, skill and experience of education for democracy to bear on the momentous tasks that confront today's democracies.

CIVIC EDUCATION: A DIVERSE FIELD Civic education involves many things: the study of constitutions; the rule of law and the operations of public institutions; the study of electoral processes; instruction in the values and attitudes of good citizenship; the development of the skills of governance and politics; issues of human rights and intergroup relations; and conflict resolution.

Civic education is pedagogy, encompassing education and training of both youths and adults in and outside of schools. Civic education can also take place through radio and television broadcasting and other means. Distance learning techniques are increasingly important, particularly in the developing world.


The Prague Conference CIVITAS was inaugurated at an international conference of civic educators held in Prague in June 1995. More than 450 civic educators from 52 countries met at CIVITAS@Prague.1995 to discuss the importance of civic culture to the successful development and maintenance of democratic governance. They explored the central role of civic educators in cultivating a democratic culture and pledged to continue their joint efforts to raise the visibility of civic education on the international agenda and leverage their resources through cooperative efforts.

At the close of the Prague conference, participants from the 52 nations adopted and signed the following declaration:

The Civitas Declaration

The wave of change toward democracy and the open economy that swept the world at the beginning of this decade has slowed, and, in some respects, even turned around. Religious and ethnic intolerance; abuses of human rights; cynicism toward politics and government; corruption, crime and violence; ignorance, apathy and irresponsibility -- all represent growing challenges to freedom, the marketplace, democratic government, and the rule of law.

All this makes clear how central knowledge, skills, and democratic values are to building and sustaining democratic societies that are respectful of human rights and cultural diversity. Once again, we see the importance of education which empowers citizens to participate competently and responsibly in their societies.

Despite great differences in the more than 50 countries represented among us, we find many similarities in the challenges we face in our civic life. These challenges exist not only in the countries represented here; they also exist in other parts of the world, and in all aspects of social, economic, and political life. People involved in civic education have much to learn from one another.

It is time again to recognize the crucial role that civic education plays in many areas of concern to the international community:

Shared democratic values, and institutions that reflect these values, are the necessary foundation for national and international security and stability;

The breakup of Cold War blocs, while bringing much good, has also created openings for aggressive and undemocratic movements, even in the established democracies themselves;

Civic development is an essential element in -- not just a side effect of -- economic development. Investments and guarantees made by private enterprise, governments, and international financial institutions will fail where political and legal systems fail, and where corruption and violence flourish.

The challenge of civic education is too great for educators alone. They need far greater cooperation from their own peoples, governments, and the international community.

We seek increased support for civic education -- formal and informal -- from the widest range of institutions and governments. In particular, we urge greater involvement in civic education by international organizations such as the Council of Europe, the European Union, the North Atlantic Assembly, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the United Nations, UNESCO, and the World Bank.

We seek an active personal and electronic on-line exchange (through Civnet) of curricular concepts, teaching methods, study units, and evaluation programs for all elements of continuing education in civics, economics, and history.

We pledge ourselves to create and maintain a worldwide network that will make civic education a higher priority on the international agenda.

The Strasbourg Meeting The CIVITAS Organizing Committee, selected from the leadership of the Prague conference, convened in Strasbourg in March 1996 under the auspices of the Council of Europe's Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport with the support of the United States Information Agency, the United States Department of Education, the American Federation of Teachers and the Center for Civic Education. The committee adopted the following statement of purpose leading to the drafting of principles for organizing, articles of association and a constitution.

Statement of Purpose

CIVITAS: An International Consortium for Civic Education aims to strengthen effective education for informed and responsible citizenship in new and established democracies. The CIVITAS Consortium is composed of individuals, non-governmental associations, and governmental institutions from around the world. Fulfilment of the Consortium's mission is the mutual responsibility of all members, acting by themselves and through concerted effort.

The CIVITAS Consortium believes that education for democratic citizenship must be among the paramount aims of democracies everywhere. The fate of democracy in many parts of the world is uncertain. Even where continued existence of democracy is not in question, the quality and direction of public life are at stake.

To meet these challenges CIVITAS undertakes to maintain a worldwide network, using all available resources, including computer networking, international exchange, and other appropriate means, that will bring the knowledge, skill and experience of education for democracy to bear on the momentous tasks that confront democracy in a time of opportunity and peril.

Members of CIVITAS are aware that education for citizenship cannot of itself save, consolidate or sustain democracy when forces such as widespread lawlessness and economic decline threaten to undermine public confidence and support. And they also realize that no democracy can adequately function without the support of citizens who understand its foundations in ideas, institutions and practices, and know how to ensure that their problems and aspirations are addressed by the government charged with representing them.

The democratic world should be put on notice that very much depends on educating the next generation of informed and responsible citizens. The euphoria that accompanied the liberation of Eastern Europe in 1989, the subsequent demise of the Soviet Union, the end of apartheid in South Africa, and the re-establishment of democracy in many Latin American countries has largely dissipated. Grave, in some instances profound obstacles to the stability of democracies have become apparent. Religious, political and ethnic intolerance, human rights abuses, political cynicism and corruption, crime and violence, ignorance, apathy, and irresponsibility all pose threats to the vitality of democracy.

Because of the depth of these challenges, CIVITAS affirms that sustained international cooperation is required to keep the democratic tide rising and that the momentum of post-Cold War international cooperation cannot be sustained in an atmosphere of democratic collapse. We, the CIVITAS Consortium, have come together and now call on all other civic educators around the world to join us in our efforts.

The Washington Meeting The CIVITAS Organizing Committee gathered in Washington, D.C. in April 1997 to formally constitute CIVITAS as an international non-governmental organization, with members of the committee signing a formal act of association and adopting a constitution. With the constitution approved and in place, the Organizing Committee was seated as the first Steering Committee of CIVITAS, the primary governing body of the organization. An Executive Board of the Steering Committee was elected, sub-committees named, and an Executive Director of the Secretariat named.


Bosnia In late-March 1996, CIVITAS members, the American Federation of Teachers, the Center for Civic Education, the Council of Europe and the United States Information Agency joined in sponsoring a four-day workshop on teaching democracy held in Sarajevo, Bosnia. This cooperative effort brought together civic educators from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Northern Ireland, Norway and the U.S. to deliver a series of workshops on teaching democracy. The training was attended by participants from throughout the country, including Banja Luka, Brcko, East and West Mostar, Gorazde and Tuzla.

The participants' positive response to that training inspired a more ambitious program of cooperation among American, European and Bosnian educators. In May and July 1996, more than 25 civic educators from the United States and Europe spent several weeks in Bosnia-Herzegovina working with their counterparts in every canton of the country. In the fall of 1996 the materials used in this project were introduced into Bosnian classrooms in a pilot program which continues today and which, it is hoped, will lead to nationwide implementation and the development of a comprehensive, national, K-12 civic education curriculum.

East and Central Europe and The Newly Independent States The International Civic Education Exchange, a CIVITAS program, enables civic educators from the United States, Eastern and Central Europe and the Newly Independent States to learn from and assist each other in improving education for democracy. The program includes seminars for civic educators on the basic values and principles of constitutional democracy and its institutions; reciprocal visits by civic educators to school systems, institutions of higher learning, and nonprofit organizations; translations of basic documents of constitutional government; joint research projects; and adaptations of exemplary curricular and teacher education programs. The program is administered by the Center for Civic Education, supported by the United States Department of Education, and is being conducted with the cooperation of the United States Information Agency and its affiliated USIS offices.

The Americas An international partnership of civic educators hosted a hemispheric conference on civic education from September 29 to October 2, 1996 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The conference, CIVITAS Panamericano: Education for Democracy, built regional and international networks of expertise and technology among non-governmental and governmental organizations to strengthen democratic values, civic participation and free market economies throughout the Americas. The 300 participants at CIVITAS Panamericano represented civic education organizations, government ministries, the media and the private sector from 20 countries in North and South America.

Civic education curriculum reform projects are underway in several countries as a result of the Buenos Aires conference. Recently, the CIVITAS Panamericano network lobbied successfully for the inclusion of civic education as a priority in the declaration issued by the Presidents of the countries of North, Central and South America gathered at the Second Summit of the Americas (Santiago, Chile, April 1998).

CIVITAS Africa Educators from across Africa gathered in Pretoria, South Africa in May 1997 to lay the groundwork for a continent-wide civic education movement. Building upon the precedents established in Prague, Bosnia and Buenos Aires, the CIVITAS Africa workshop aimed to create new national, regional and continental networks of civic educators from all sectors throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

Fifteen countries were invited to send delegations to Pretoria. Each delegation consisted of a cross-section of leaders in civic renewal and democracy building from non-governmental organizations, education ministries, the press and academe. Encouraged by the realization that they are not isolated, and by an exchange of ideas which generated new concepts and models for democracy education, the three regional groups developed specific plans for future action, including three expanded regional workshops. The first two were held in June 1998 in Dakar, Senegal and Maputo, Mozambique, and the third is scheduled to be held in East Africa in September 1998. These workshops will lay the groundwork for a civic education infrastructure throughout the continent.

Promoting a Democratic Culture of Lawfulness In October 1997 in Mexico City CIVITAS convened more than 100 government officials and civic educators from over 30 countries to consider the contribution of education to the fight against crime and corruption. These twin threats to democracy around the world undermine human rights, legitimate business and the quality of life for millions. Law enforcement alone is not sufficient to address the challenges international crime and corruption present to democracy. Education is essential in this effort.

Those gathered in Mexico City developed recommendations that look to grassroots prevention to augment the traditional fight against crime and corruption. Participants suggested that it is necessary to be proactive as well as reactive in coping with these problems, that attitudes and values are key, and that primary and secondary school curricula can and should play a major role in fostering a democratic culture of lawfulness.

Based on the recommendations of participants, CIVITAS is developing ideas for school based educational programs designed to foster civic culture and to strengthen democracy against the threat presented by international crime and corruption.

Civic Education and Civil Society in the Arab World Government officials, NGO representatives, academics and educators from Arab nations met in Amman, Jordan from June 29 - July 1, 1998 to consider current best practices from these countries in the field of citizenship education. The long-term goal of this workshop is to support democracy, foster sustainable economic growth and encourage an open information environment by laying the foundation for a regional network of civic education and civil society leaders. This workshop served to strengthen understanding and improve practices of civic education through increased ties between the public and private sectors.

CIVITAS @ Kuala Lumpur 1998 In March 1998, a steering committee met in Kuala Lumpur to lay the groundwork for the first major conference on civic education to be held in the Asia-Pacific region. The committee gathered to consider the call of Asian participants in previous CIVITAS events for the development of an Asian civic educators network and the opportunity to meet to exchange ideas and experiences in teaching democracy and strengthening citizenship throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

CIVITAS @ Kuala Lumpur 1998 will provide an occasion for civic educators, government officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations in the Asia Pacific region to share views and experiences with one another, as well as to establish links with colleagues from other regions. Among the attendees will be 120 leaders from Australia; the People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Korea; Laos; Malaysia; Mongolia; New Zealand; Philippines; Singapore; Chinese Taipei; Thailand and Vietnam. Together with over a dozen of their counterparts from around the world, they will discuss issues related to the conference theme of "Civic Education for Civil Society" during a series of plenary and concurrent sessions.

The Kuala Lumpur conference will serve to increase awareness of work on civic education and civil society in the Asia Pacific region and to foster increased regional cooperation in the field through the establishment of a regional network of civic educators and well as increased involvement in the work of CIVITAS International.

CIVNET Civnet is a website on the Internet for civic education practitioners, curriculum designers, teachers, teacher trainers, researchers, administrators and non-governmental organizations involved in promoting civic education or civil society. Created and maintained by CIVITAS partners, the Civnet website contains a vast virtual library of teaching resources, discourse on civil society, directories of information on organizations and programs, NGO newsletters, calendars of events and information on CIVITAS activities and events. Resources include lesson plans, complete civics textbooks, historical documents, bibliographies and articles on teaching methodology. The material is provided by educators, authors and organizations wishing to contribute.

No person, organization or government owns Civnet. It is developed continually by its users worldwide, who contribute teaching materials in their native languages and information on their organizations, programs, events and contact information (including links to other websites). In this way, Civnet reflects the diversity of experiences, needs, objectives, cultures and languages of its users and contributors.

Civnet was first designed for CIVITAS@Prague.1995, with content supplied by several NGOs, including the Center for Civic Education and the American Federation of Teachers. The Council of Europe supplied a major update to Civnet with its own materials at the CIVITAS Steering Committee Meeting in Strasbourg, France in March 1996. Civnet has since been updated with Spanish-language materials from the CIVITAS Panamericano conference in Buenos Aires, materials in English and French from the CIVITAS Africa conference and information on the CIVITAS @ Kuala Lumpur 1998 conference. Civnet may be accessed on the World Wide Web at the Internet address http://www.civnet.org.

CONTACTING CIVITAS For further information please contact the

CIVITAS Secretariat 8 rue des Ecrivains 67000 Strasbourg France Tel: (+33) (0) 388 24 71 00 Fax: (+33) (0) 388 24 71 09 Balazs Hidveghi, Executive Director bohidveghi@compuserve.com Anne Stark, Assistant civitas@club-internet.



Civitas Conference Participants

Miranda Gace, Society for Democratic Culture Fatmira Myteberi, Institute of Pedagogical Research Jusuf Vrioni, Tirana Helsinki Committee ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Maria Rosa Martini ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Gugam Sarkissian, Head, Dept. of Foreign Relations, Ministry of Education ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Michael Kudlak, Coordinator, International Press Institute ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Vladimir Kolos, Director, Belarus Humanitarian Educational and Cultural Center Anatoliy Mikhailov, Rector, European Humanitarian University Lyudmila Oreshkina, Public Affairs Assistant, USIS Belarus Gennady Palchik, Director, The Republican Lyceum, Belarus State University Vassily Strazhev, Minister, Ministry of Education ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Srebren Dizdar, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports Mehmed Halilovic, Oslobodjenje Senad Pecanin, DANI Independent Magazine Zdravko Grebo, Open Society Fund of Bosnia ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Mikhail Berov, Co-Director, Free and Democratic Foundation Sophia Dobreva, Ethnic Coordinator, Partners for Democratic Change

Ludmila Dragoeva, Head, Secondary School Civics Education Department Valentin Hadjiev, Senior Assistant, Department of Law and International Relations, Sofia University Deyan Kiuranov, Director, Center for Liberal Strategies Todor Tanev, Chair, Sofia University, Department of Political Science Ivelina Vatova, Soros Open Society, Open Education Center Michael Yanakiev, Executive Director, Bulgarian Association for Fair Elections and Civil Rights ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Adrienne Snow, Donner Canadian Foundation ------------------------------------------------------------------


Monica Jimenez ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Naima Balic, Senior Adviser, Ministry of Culture Zlatko Gall, Journalist, Slobodna Dalmacija Damir Juric, Deputy Delegate, Local Democracy Embassy Lidija Obad, Executive Committee Member, Center for Peace, Non Violence and Human Rights Zoran Pusic, President, Civic Committe for Human Rights Marjana Radakovic, Project Manager, Anti-War Campaign Croatia Sinisa Rodin, Assistant Professor, Law Faculty, University of Zagreb Vladimir Vujicic, Assistant Professor, Political Science Faculty, University of Zagreb ------------------------------------------------------------------

Czech Republic

Civitas Conference Participants

Scott Alexander, European Journalism Network Stephen Baskerville, Lecturer, Department of Humanities and European Studies, Palacky University Pavel Bratinka, Deputy Foreign Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Vera Doruskova, Executive Director, Humanitas - Profes Foundation Vladimira Dvorakova, Czech Project Coordinator, European Constitutionalism Project (American Council of Learned Societies) Frantisek Formanek, Director, Institute for Democracy and European Unity Josef Jarab, Rector, Palacky University Jitka Jilemika, Head, Departmen for Educational Programs, Czech Center, Partners for Democratic Change Jaroslav Kalous, Director, Comenius Center for Education and Democracy (CCED) Katherine Kastner, Prague Office Director, Foundation for a Civil Society Martina Klicperova, Researcher, Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences Helena Krajcova, Assistant to the Director, Human Rights Education Center Jana Kurokova, CEELI (ABA Law Initiative) Radovan Langer, Head, Section of School Administrators and Member of the Board, Czech- Moravian Teachers Union Marketa Lukacova, Open Society Fund Petr Marek, Places in the Heart Foundation Pavel Novak, Domestic Affairs Advisor, Office of the President of the Czech Republic Jana Ondrackova, Director, Czech Society for Children's Rights Martin Palous, Charles University Petr Pitha, Chair, Department of Civic Education Miroslav Pospisil, Director, Jan Hus Education Foundation Dana Rabinakova, Director, Partners for Democratic Change - Czech Republic Jana Ryslinkova, Director, Man Education and New Technologies Foundation Jitka Siklova, Gender Studies Center Ondrej Steffi, Executive Committee, Schools for Children Foundation Ladislav Venys, Center for Democracy and Free Enterprise Zora Vidovencova, Civic Education Project Jaroslav Veis, Journalist, Center for Independent Journalism Jaromir Zegklitz, Director, Civic Institute ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Abraham Abebe ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Tiiu Evert, Program Manager, Jaan Tonisson Institute Krista Kilvet, Member, Estonian Parliament, Science, Culture and Education Commission Anu Toots, Lecturer, Tallinn Pedagogical University Sulev Valdmaa, Civics Project Manager, Jaan Tonisson Institute Larissa Vassilchenko, Tartu University Education Department ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Jorma Turunen, Secretary General, Workers' Educational Association ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Robert Chelle, Secretery General, National Coordinating Committee Richard Dion, International Institute for Democracy Jean Peyrot, President, French Association of Historians and Geographers ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Ghia Nodia, Vice-Chairman of the Board, Caucasian Institute for Peace, Democracy, and Development George Tarkhan-Mouravi, Vice-Chairman of the Board, Caucasian Institute for Peace, Democracy, and Development ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Karlheinz Durr, German Institute for Correspondence Studies at the Universit Irmgard Hantsche Dietmar Kahsnitz Hartmut Wasser Beate Winkler, Inter-Ministerial Working Group of the Commissioner for Fore ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Foteini Bali, Ministry to the Prime Minister Nikiforos Diamantouros, President, Greek Political Science Association ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Cano Del Cid Elefidio ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Gaspar Czine, Lecturer, Institute for Legal Assistance and Education in the Law Peter Drahos, Co-Founder, Association for Teaching Civic Knowledge and Skills Kinga Goncz, Director, Partners for Democratic Change -- Hungary Geza Gosztonyi, International Coordinator, Nonprofit Information and Training Center (NIOK) Ferenc Hammer, Joint Eastern Europe Center for Democratic Education and Governance. Balazs Hidveghi, Co-Founder, Association for Teaching Civic Knowledge and Skills Istvan Kovacs, International Director, Teachers' Democratic Union of Hungary -- PDSZ Mihaly Samu, University Professor, Institute for Legal Assistance and Education in the Law Ivan Janos Sellei, Raoul Wallenberg Association Marianna Torok, Program Director, Soros Foundation -- Hungary ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Rohit Jain Ravindra Nagar Alok Sharma ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Michal Levine ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Vincenzo Consiglio, Ministry of Public Instruction Luciano Corradini, Undersecretary, Ministry of Education ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Musa Besbayev, Association of Independent Universities Kazakhstan Nurbulat Masanov, International Fund for Intellectual Support of Reforms in Kazakhstan Leonid Solomin, Independent Trade Union Center of Kazakhstan Saule Kenesbayeva, President, Liana ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Marina Adamovskaya, Human Rights Movement Gabriela Schwarz, Education for Development Center Dina Shukurova, Member of the Board, Peace Research Center Tyntchtykbek Tchoroev, Young Historians of Kyrgyzstan ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Guntars Catlaks, President, Democracy Advancement Center Armands Kalnins, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Science Arijs Orlovskis, Lecturer, Liepaja Pedagogical University Vija Rudina, Democracy Advancement Center Aija Tuna, Institute of History of Latvia ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Vladislovas Budzinauskas, Senior Officer, Ministry of Education and Culture -- Social Sciences Division Giedre Kvieskeine, Director, Lithuanian College of Democracy Lidija Laurinciukiene, Assistant Editor-in-Chief, Dialogas Teachers' Newspaper, Laima Minciene, Expert Teacher, Kaunas Constructor Training Center

Arunas Poviliumas, Senior Assistant, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Vilnius Viktorija Zilinskaite, Sociologist, Lithuanian Conflict Resolution Center ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Carmel Galea Scannura ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Pavel Cernocan, Students' Pro Democracy Association Igor Grosu, President, Students' Pro Democracy Association Victor Gutium, Administrative Section, Students' Pro Democracy Association ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Rinchiin Narangerel ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

John Katzao ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Helene Bude-Janssens, Chairman of the Board, Dutch Association of History Teaches -- VGN Felisa Tibbetts, The Netherlands Helsinki Committee Joke van der Leeuw-Rood, President, Euroclio ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Monika Agopsowicz, Director, Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe (IDEE) - Poland Ewa Chatajinska, Program Coordinator, Batory Foundation Grzegore Ciemniak, Teacher & Coordinator for Civics Education Training Dariusz Jachimowicz, Borderland Foundation Jacek Krolikowski, Director, Center for Civic and Economic Education Stephan Kubowicz, NSZZ Solidarity, National Education Section Iwona Langer-Kowalewska, Partners for Democratic Change -- Poland Witold Monkiewicz, Coordinator of American Programs, Foundation in Support of Local Democracy Piotr Pacewicz, Deputy Editor-in Chief, Gazeta Wyborcza Alicja Pacewicz, Co-Director, Center for Citizenship Education Ewa Ruszkowska, Volunteer Trainer, FED Andrzij Rzeplicki, Board Member, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights Elzbieta Samplawska, Project Specialist, AID Krzysztof Stanowski, Senior Program Office/Dir, Foundation for Education for Democracy Jacek Strzemieczny, Director, Center for Citizenship Education Ewa Szymczak, Deputy Director, Fundacja SOS ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Graca Pombeiro, Director, Citizen and Justice Program ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Annelise Anghel, Exectutive Director, Foundation for Pluralism Stefan Biro, President, Hungarian Teachers Association of Romania Dorina Chiritescu, Professor, Nicolae Iorga Highschool Catalin Croitoru, President, Federation of Unions of Pre-University Educators -- FSIPR Smaranda Enache, Co-President, Liga Pro Europa Dakmara Georgescu, Researcher, Institute for Educational Sciences Mihai Lisetchi, Regional Coordinator, Pro Democracy Association Ligia Neacsu, Program Director, Romanian Independent Society for Human Rights -- SIRDO Elena Nedulcu, Founder and President, Romanian Center for Civic Education Emil Pop, Director General, Pre-University, Ministry of Education Leventer Salat, Soros Foundation, Director, Cluj Branch Daniela Stoichitoiu, Head, Research Department , Romanian Banking Institute ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Natalya V. Akhtyamova, Deputy Director, Kazan State University Olga Arshintseva, Professor, Altay State University Anatoly Azarov, Doctor of Philosophy and, Moscow Region Educators Institute Aleksandr Belyavskiy, Director, Center for Humanities Education Evgeniy Churakov, Head, City of Orel, Department of Education Petr S. Filipov, Department of Analysis and Socio-Economic Problems of the Presidency of the RF Lyubov Ibragimova, Head of Social Sciences D, Chelyabinsk Teacher Training Yelena Kazhayeva, Regional Educational Department, Syzran City Irina Korolyova, St. Petersburg Centre for Concerned Teachers Yuriy I. Latyshev, Deputy Director, School No. 44, Dmitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk Oblast Irina M. Logvinova, Deputy Head, Primorye Region Department of Education, Vladivostok Anton Lopukhin, Association of Young Leaders Sergey Magaril, Social Democratic Party of Russia Igor Nagdasev, Russian Center for Citizenship Education -- Moscow Igor Ovchinnikov, Golubka Vasiliy Papin, Tver Regional Institute for Upgrading Knowledge Anatoliy Pavlov, Deputy Head, Department of Education, Tver Oblast

Tatyana Poglazova, Principal, School No. 13, Noviy Urengoy Petr Polozhevetz, Editor-in-Chief, Uchitelskaya Gazeta Olga Potemkina, President, All-Russian Union of Social Issues, Moscow Yelena L. Rusakova, Program Coordinator - Research, Youth Center for Human Rights and Legal Culture Vladimir Rybnikov, Head of Press Center, Administration of Vologda

Alexander Sagomonyan, Moscow Linguistics University Valeriy Salazkin, Head, Public Program For Cooperation & Development Valery Salazkin, Deputy, Duma, Russia's Choice Anatoliy Savateyev, Director, School No. 1064, Moscow Sergey Sizov, Nizhniy Novgorod State University Yakov Sokolov, Director, Grazhdanin (Citizen) Elena Solovyova, Institute of General Education Yevguenia Toloknova, TV Journalist, "Kamennyi Most" Volgada Alexander Tubelsky, General Director, Association for Innovative Schools Aleksey Vodyanskiy, Head, Ministry of Education, Deptartment . of Humanitarian Education Alexey Voronin, Deputy Chief, Department of Education, Bryansk Irina Yashkina, School No. 6, Novorossiysk Valery Yegorov, Yantykovsky Educational Administration, Chuvashia ------------------------------------------------------------------

Serbia - Montenegro

Civitas Conference Participants

Miklos Biro, Professor, University of Novy Sad Sonja Biserko, President, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia Branislav Canak, President, NEZAVISNOST Adem Demaci, President, Kosovo Committee for Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms Agim Hyseni, Chairman, Kosovo Teachers' Union Ruzica Rosandic, Director, "Bridge" (Association of Cooperation and Mediation in Conflict Resolution Slobodan Vuckovic, Head, International Cooperation Committe, Democratic Center Foundation ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Dominik Bartosiewicz, Director, foundation for Support of Local Democracy Martin Butora, Milan Simecka Foundation -- FOCUS Josef Gal, Banska Methodology Center (Bystrica) Tereza Grellova, Executive Director, Milan Simecka Foundation - Slovakia Michal Horsky, Trnava University, Faculty of Humanities Juraj Hrabko, Political Commentator, "SME" Daily Jana Kviecinska, Milan Simeca Foundation Michal Mraz, Head, Department of Bilateral Cooperation Silvia Matusova, Director, State Pedagogical Institute Erich Mistrik, Comenius University - Department of Ethics and Civic Education Dusan Ondrusek, Director, Partners for Democratic Change -- Slovakia Peter Tatar, Founder, Aspect Education Foundation and Language Mjusa Sever, Director, Libra Institute ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Gorana Flaker, President, Association of Preventitive and Voluntary Work Mirjam Milharcic-Hladnik, Faculty of Eduction, University of Ljubljana Marko Hren, Co-Founder and President of the Board, Retina Igor Sencar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mjusa Sever, Libra Institute ------------------------------------------------------------------

South Africa

Civitas Conference Participants

Khumalo Bongani Marie-Louise Strom ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Inigo Cavero, Former Minister of Educat, Cristina Del Moral, Ministry of Education and Science Maria Herranz, Chief, Ministry of Education and Science Maria Isabel Herranz de la Morona, Ministry of Education and Science ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Margot Vogel, Deputy, University of Uppsala -- In Service Training Department ------------------------------------------------------------------




Civitas Conference Participants

Oinihol Bobonazarova, Assistant Professor, Tajik State University Law Faculty Abdukadir Kholikzoda, Deputy Chairman, "Rastokhez" political movement ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Saduman Kapusuzoglu, Member, Department of Res, Ministry of Education Tolga Yagizatli, Director, Department of R, Ministry of Education ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Tamara Begencheva, International Economic School Anjela Begjanova, US Information Service ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Vyacheslav Brykhovetsky, Rector, Kiev-Mohyla Academy Haylna Freeland, Ukrainian Legal Foundation Andrew Masiuk, Rector, Internaional Management Institute Oleksander Piskun, Deputy Executive Director, International Renaissance Foundation ------------------------------------------------------------------

United Kingdom

Civitas Conference Participants

Julie Hall, Executive Producer, Channel Four Ellie Keen, The Citizenship Foundation Don Rowe, Co-Director, Citizenship Foundation John Tusa, Marshall Plan of the Mind Trust ------------------------------------------------------------------


Civitas Conference Participants

Stella Protzenko, Vice Director, Tashkent Public Education Center Mubarak Tashpulatova, Vice Director, Tashkent Public Education Center __________

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