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Description of the Industry

All Russian and Ukrainian vehicle launches occur from two available launch sites Baykonur (actually in Kazakhstan) and Plesetsk, located north of Moscow. A new Pacific ocean cosmodrome is being considered for re-developed at Svobodny. Alernative ocean lauch sites are being explored off the coast of California. Land lauch sites are being explored in Africa. In both cases they involve joint ventures with European and American companies that are re-marketing the launch services.

Each of the various manufacturers in Russia and Ukraine theoretically have access to launch pads for the vehicles (rockets) at corresponding cosmodromes.These cosmodromes are under the management and control of the military and therefore, practically speaking "blatt" is necessary for these vehicle manufacturers to gain cooperation from the military to launch vehicles carying satellites of joint ventures with non-Russian companies. Possibilities do sometimes exist to negotiate launches, from Russia, of vehicles not manufactured by Russian manufacturers, if compatibility can be resolved. In some cases the non-Russian partners and their Russian colleagues have failed to reach agreement with the Russian military for launches contemplated by their commercial agreements.

Techical Logistics

Western payloads (satellites) vary in matters of integration cycles and require clean-air rooms with positive pressure differentials. When multiple satellite launch is in the design, different types of fairing are required. To sketch out a dispensor requires knowledge of the size and weight of the satellite; the dynamic envelope for payload (dispenser with satellites) for multiple satellite launch; and a description of constellation (or at least the shape, altitude, and inclination of a typical orbit. In some cases adaptors would have to be developed. Lift capability varies between vehicles.


The true cost of launch and vehicles is signifianctly lower for Russian launches then those elsewhere on this planet. Were Russian manufacturers, with access to Russian launch pads do not as yet have western partners there is an opportunity to negotiate more favorable contract terms and prices for launch services. Palms & Company, Inc. is a catalyst in pursuing such opportunities and in establishing good contacts with Russian industrial and government organizations and to subsequently assist in such negotiations. Where joint ventures already exist between Russian and non-Russian companies signifcantly higher prices for launches are quoted by the non-Russian companies, which typically assume and control the marketing and pricing responsibility. These differentials do not always necessarily accrue to the Russian manufacturers/launching companies.


In Ukraine, The Boeing Company has exclusive rights (both for sea launches and at Baykonur), to the Zenit vehicle, manufactured in Dnepropetrovsk by Energya. These rights have been approved by the governments of Russia and the Ukraine. However the agreements do not as yet have the blessing of the Russian military. Sea launches, from California, have already been booked solid for the first year of operations, with an initial launch rate of one every two months, increasing to one every month. Launch tempo at Baykonur could have a higher tempo, depending upon length of spacecraft integration cycle and availability of clean rooms.

There are more than a half dozen other commercial manufacturers of vehicles in the Ukraine and Russia with, technically speaking, access to launching, subject to concurrence of the military and the government. Some have booked launches at Baykonur themselves, others through U.S. aerospace companies, acting as their sales-representatives. Some meetings have occured btween U.S. and European commercial firms having synergistic interests in the Russian vehicle manufacturing industry.

Some Russian companies have have entered into arrangements of varying complexity with both U.S. and European private industry, involving launches both in Russia, as well as in other countries, and in some cases without Rusisan government or military positons resolved. Some Russian companies have no arrangements as yet for joint ventures with non-Russian companies.

In some cases large numbers of vehicles are potentially available, awaiting decommissioning (removal of warhead) In some cases manufacturers are collaborating in developing a new upper stage , or multiple-restart propulsion system, from proven subsystems of others. In some cases basic vehicle reliability is very high, based upon more than two hundred flights. In some cases launch discounts are available for unproven vehicle reliability.


Dniepr: The vehicleis based on SS-18 missile. The Tsiklon upper stage has been proposed for use with Dniepr. Launching to be from Baykonur.

Rokot: The vehicle is based on the SS-19 missle. This is a joint Venture of Khrunichev Space Center and DASA (Eurorokot) for lauches from Plesetsk or the new cosmodrome being developed at Svobodny

Strela: The vehilce is based on the SS-19 missile. NPO Mashinstroyeniye in Reutov is the original developer of this vehilve. Adapters would have to be developed. The basic vehilce reliability is high, based upon more than two hundred flights.

Priboy: The vehilce is based upon the SS-20 and SS-23 missiles and is being developed by KB Makeyev at a location near Chelyabinsk in the northern Urals. Adapters would have to be developed. Lift capability is slightly higher (5%) than Rokot.

Proton: A joint ventire with Lockheed-martin

Soyuz LV: A joint venture with European partners

Fregat/Soyuz: The Fregat upper stage is being developed from proven subsystems by Lavochkin and has a multiple restart propulsion system. With the Soyuz booster, which is in production at NPO Soyuz in Samara, it will have a launch capability similar to Proton. Adapters would have to be developed.

Lavochkin has delveloped a new liquid restartable upper stage "Fregat" which is capable to deliver to GEO up to 3,600 kg of payload (with "Proton") or 2,100 kg (with "Molniya" LV). It could be commercially offered for launches of different Western satellites.

Opportunities also exist to piggy-back launches of small satellites on LV's scheduled to launch with their payloads. ILavochkin is in charge of payload integration. In this manner an Argentinian satellite MuSat was launched a year ago together with Lovochkin's Prognoz spacecraft.

Another possibility would be piggy-back launches on launches of other customers (mainly military because we have close contacts with them). Example: Mexican satellite UNAMSAT-B launched a year ago. Launches could take place from both Baikonur and Plesetsk depending on the mission. Each launch has its own intricacies and they are individually negotiated. If you have in mind a Western payloads that could be placed on a Russian launch vehicle we can offer you our assistance in finding the mutually beneficial option.

Lavochkin is also interested in joint satellite development. For example they can offer the flight proven space bus and combine it with western specific payload (communications, remote sensing, materials processing). This satellite could be launched on a Russian LV at a lower price. WThey also are designing some projects utilizing small satellites ,which is a modern trend in the space world. All these projects need investors.

During their long experience in manufacturing of space systems Lavochkin developed some technologies that could be applied in consumer products such as heat pipes, satellite antennas, special coatings, pyrotechnical devices and others.

This is only a brief description of possibilities for cooperation. If you have some specific demands we invite you to discuss them

Concerning "Fregat" upper stage, Lavochkin has no long-term obligations with any international partner and they are free to choose their customers, but it should understand that "Fregat" must be coupled with "Proton", "Molnia" or "Soyuz" .

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Palms & Company, Inc. Founded 1934
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